Agricultural origin and civilization origin
"Rice · Source · Enlightenment – Zhejiang Shangshan Culture Archaeological Exhibition" is exhibiting in China National Museum.The early remains of the Shangshan Culture, which are distributed in the Zhejiang Jinyu Basin, and the archaeological discovered the site, column cave, red-saving surface, gray pit, etc.Drop and processed stone and stone chisel.
A large amount of carbonized rice husk was found in the red-baked, and the carbonized rice shell was found. It was observed from the sections of the pottery to have a rice husk from the sections of the pottery. It can be speculated that rice has become an indispensable plant in human life at the time.The above findings revealed that Shangshan cultural ace should have begun to implement certain cultivation behaviors, such as felling and incineration, broadcasting rice seeds, settlement of rice fields, and use specific tools after ripening, and so on.If the origin of rice agriculture or the initial stage can be traced back to 10,000 years ago.
The origin of agriculture is a synergistic process between human and animals and plants.
In this process, the mutual dependence between people and some animals is gradually strengthened. In the end, these plants and animal evolution becomes a special species that must rely on people to carry out special species of normal reproduction, namely cultivated crops and domestic animals; and human society It also evolved accordingly became the technical social stage of crops and livestock and poultry as the source of basic living materials, namely agricultural society.
The formation of agricultural society is a long evolution process, rather than sudden changes.
This process is the most typical in rice.
Rice as a long period of thousands of years after thousands of years: about 10,000 years ago, ancient human beings in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River began to settle and cultivate rice, marking the emergence of rice as farming; During the Liangzhu Cultural Period, 5,000 years ago, rice as farming production has finally replaced the collection of hunting activities to become the social economy main, marking the official formation of rice as a agricultural society. It is a key stage in the process of rice as an agricultural origin of rice.
At present, the relevant ruins of this stage of archaeological findings are: Hunan Province Peng Shushan Site and Eighty Dragonfly Site, Zhejiang Xiaoshan Crosshu Bridge Site, Zhangzhou Xiaohuangshan Site and Yuyao Life Mountain Site, Henan Dance Yang Jia The lake rule and the Dengzhou Bayiogang site. There is a certain number of rice remains in these sites.
In addition, the ruins of the system flotation are also unearthed with common rice fields such as grass, floating grass, and fluorurization. Weeds are special plant groups with artificial habitats, in which field weeds are accompanied by human cultivation crops, so the field weeds unearthed in the site can indirectly reflect the farming production. It is worth noting that the wild animal remains and plant remains are generally unearthed in these archaeological sites. For example, the number of non-winning fish bones, as well as the remains of wildlife such as deer, cattle, rabbit, floating out of rhodes, lotus roots, and fruits, etc. can be worried.
The quantitative analysis of flotation results showed that unearthed rice remains did not have obvious advantages compared to the acquired wild food resources.
In other words, the social economy main body is still collecting hunting (fishing and hunting), rice planting and pig breeding are only auxiliary, and the early stage of life morphological characteristics and social and economic development are in the early stage of rice agricultural society. . During the distance of 7,000 to 6000, it is still in the evolution of hunting to rice as agriculture.
The number of archaeological sites belonging to this stage is large, including the most representative of Zhejiang Yuyao Hemudu Site and Tianzhan Site.
The archaeological excavations of the river Zhadui and Tianwan sites have unearthed, including the number of amazing rice remains, including a large number 爱上海水磨价格 of edible wild plants, such as rhodes, truth, lotus seeds, and fruits.
Among them, it is the most worthy of concern.
As a starch, there are many similarities with rice, such as harvesting season, consumption, nutrients, storage functions, etc., these two types of foods are replaceable if one of them can be obtained. It is not necessary to obtain another category. The fruit contains bitter tannins, the removal process is complicated, the protein and fibers are also rough, the mouth is poor, and if humans can harvest enough rice, there is no need to collect sauce. A large amount of edible wild plant remains, especially the foundation of the fruit storage hibiscus, which has an important role in the industrial economy of the ancient age of River Zeng and Tian Wuhan sites, but the harvested rice is not 爱上海龙凤 enough to support the village residents. Still need to obtain wild plant resources by collecting. Until 5000 years ago, rice farming finally replaced the collection of hunting and became a socio-economic body.
In recent years, archaeological discovery shows that the number of archaeological sites in the Liangzhu Culture, which is 5,000 years ago, suddenly increased dramatic, and the Liangzhu cultural site of the Hangzhou Bay area is unusually intensive. This shows that in the Liangzhu Culture, a population has grown sharply in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. In the history of human development, the population growth rate is regulated and restricted by the growth rate of basic living materials. If in a historical development phase, the population in a particular area suddenly grows significantly, generally in the fundamental transformation of basic living materials. closely related.
Therefore, the phenomenon of population growth during the Liangzhu culture should have a certain causal relationship with the establishment of rice agricultural society. Only by relying on relatively developed rice agricultural production, it can maintain a large number of people accumulated in a relatively narrow region.
Archaeological also revealed a magnificent Liangzhu ancient city and a regional ancient social group from 5,000 years ago. It can conduct a large number of labor to engage in building workers with basic living materials. From a side, the rice agricultural production during the Liangzhu culture has developed to a considerable level. The labor efficiency of farming production is improved, and the production of rice is increased, and only some members can engage in rice farming. Provide sufficient food.
After thousands of years of rice agriculture, China’s rice has gradually formed a unique rice agricultural system, including waterfield cultivation technology, hollow and calendar, cereal processing methods and cooking grain habits, and corresponding social structure, ideological concepts and cultural traditions. .
Thus, from the process of agricultural origin of ancient China, it can be seen that agricultural origins and civilization origin are inhabited.